Soil is essential in our country because it is impossible to produce any crop without soil. You cannot build any building without soil. Apart from this, when it comes to farming, the importance of soil increases even more, and the farmers prepare the crops. If said, the soil is a crucial part of our life, without which it is considered impossible to live.
What Is Soil?
The coarse, medium and fine organic and inorganic mixed particles on the upper surface of the earth are called ‘soil’ or soil. If we remove the soil from the upper surface, rock is often found there, but sometimes the rock is found only at a small depth removing the soil.
Types Of Soil In India:-
There are mainly eight types of soil in India because the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has divided the soil of India into eight groups. The information of which is as follows-
- Alluvial Soil
- Black Soil
- Red And Yellow Soil
- Laterite Soil
- Arid Soils
- Saline Soil
- Organic Soil
- Forest Soil
For the first time in 1879, Dok Shaiv, while classifying the soil, divided the soil into normal and abnormal soils, after which the grounds of India were broadly divided into five classes.
- Alluvial Soil,
- Black Soil Or Regur Soil
- Red Soil,
- Laterite Soil
- Arid Soils
Alluvial Soil (Loam)
This soil is found in India’s largest area, also called loam soil. Alluvial soil is found in about 43.4 percent of the total area of India. The deposition of rivers has formed this soil, but the nitrogen and phosphorus content is found in alluvial soils. Therefore, in places where alluvial soil is found more, it is vital to apply urea fertilizer for crop production.
Potash and lime are not found in high amounts in alluvial soils. Along with this, due to the deposition of alluvial soil, the plain of North (Gangetic region) in India, the plains of Sindh, the plains of Brahmaputra, the plains of Godavari, the river of Kaveri, etc., have remained. Therefore, alluvial soil is considered the most useful for wheat crops. Apart from this, rice and potato are also cultivated in this soil. Alluvial soil is formed by mixing sandy soil and clay soil. The colour of alluvial soil is light grey.
After alluvial soil, black soil is the most used in India. Therefore, from the POV of the area, black soil has second place in India. Black soil is most commonly used for farming in the state of Maharashtra in India and second place in the state of Gujarat. This soil is formed due to the formation of basalt rock due to the eruption of a volcano. On the other hand, black soil is known as ‘Regur’ (Regud) in South India. In Kerala, black soil is known as ‘Shali’; in North India, black soil is known as ‘Keval’.
The amount of Nitrogen and Phosphorus is also not found in black soil because the amount of iron, lime, magnesium and alumina is found in it. Potash content is also not high in black soil. Black soil is primarily used in the production of cotton. Along with this, paddy cultivation is also good in this soil. Apart from this, lentils and gram also have a good yield in black soil.
From the point of view of the area, red soil has maintained its third place in India. Red soil is spread over 5.18 lakh sq km in India. At the same time, this soil has been formed by the breakdown of granite rock. Red soil is the most widespread in the state of Tamil Nadu. Most of the minerals are found under red soil.
Nitrogen and phosphorus are not found in red soil either. Iron oxide (Fe2O3) is found in red soil, whose colour appears red. Red soil is not suitable for crop production. Most coarse cereals, like jowar, bajra, groundnut, tur, maize, etc., are grown in this soil. Apart from this, paddy is also cultivated in this soil.
Most of the yellow soil is found in Kerala, India. In the area where red soil is found, and at the same time, there is more rainfall in that soil, then due to excess rain, the chemical elements of red soil get separated, due to which the colour of that soil starts appearing yellow.
In India, from the POV of the area, laterite is the fourth place of soil. This soil is spread over 1.26 lakh square km in India. Iron oxide and aluminium oxide are found in large quantities in laterite soil, but nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, lime and organic elements are not in excess. Therefore, laterite soil is considered most useful for tea and coffee crops.
Therefore, laterite soils are found more in Assam, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu states in India. This soil is also seen more in hilly and plateau areas. Cashews are grown well in this soil. An amount of iron oxide and aluminium oxide is found in it, but nitrogen, phosphorus, potash and lime are less in this soil.
Mountain soil is such a soil in which pebbles and stones are found in abundance. Potash, phosphorus and lime deficiency are also found in mountain soils. Jhum cultivation is done the most in the hilly region of Nagaland. Most of the garam masala is cultivated in the mountainous region.
Arid and desert soils are soils in which the amount of soluble salts and phosphorus is high. Nitrogen and organic matter content is not high in this soil. Therefore, this soil is more beneficial for the production of oilseeds. Good crops are produced in desert soil, but you need a proper water system. Apart from oilseeds, the yield of Jowar, Bajra and Ragi crops is good in this soil.
Saline soils are also called alkaline soils and kallar soils. Alkaline soil is found where the water drainage facility is not found. By the way, the amount of sodium, calcium and magnesium is found in the area’s soil, due to which the soil becomes alkaline. Alkaline soils are formed more in the coastal plain. This is because it has low nitrogen content. In India, alkaline soils are found in the coastal region of Punjab, Haryana, western Rajasthan and Kerala, where coconut is cultivated well.
Organic soils are also called marshy soils. In India, marshy soil is available in Kerala, Uttarakhand and West Bengal. The swampy soil also does not have a high amount of phosphorus and potash, but a high amount of salt is found in it. Therefore, marshy soil is also considered suitable for crop production.
We described the soils of India and the suitable crops according to their type. In this way, our nation properly defines unity in diversity. Moreover, these challenging soils need high-quality tractor tyres such as the Apollo Tractor Tyres to operate the tractors effortlessly. Apart from this, stay connected with us to know more about farming and agriculture machines.
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