Introduction of Cardamom
Cardamom, one of the oldest known spices, native to the evergreen rain forests of the Western Ghats in South India and is used to flavour a variety of food, confectionery, beverages, and liquors. In India- Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu are the three states where it is grown. Elettaria cardamomum L is the scientific name for cardamom, also known as “ELAICHI” or “ILAICHI” in India. Today, it is grown in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Guatemala, Mexico, Thailand, and Central America.
When it comes to tractors and implements in the farming process, you should be cautious when selecting a tractor because the tractor will affect the yield or outcome you seek from this farming. In India, you can purchase a popular low-cost tractor suitable for all types of farming. Escort Tractors and John Deer Tractors are two of the most popular tractor brands that manufacture tractors for various farming procedures. Now, let’s take a closer look at cardamom farming.
Is Cardamom Healthy to Consume?
it has a lot of ailing benefits, some of which are as follows:
- it is good for gum health
- it helps curb digestive problems and relive acidity
- it has properties to fight anaemia and lowering blood pressure.
- it can also help prevent blood clots.
Technical factors Required to Grow Cardamom
1. Climatic Condition
Climatic condition available in Western Ghat’s hilly tracts is highly suitable. The temperature range between 10 degrees to 35 degrees is highly suitable for growing this crop. Farmers can easily grow small cardamom in areas where rainfall is between 1500 mm to 4,000 mm. This crop can grow 600m to 1,500 m above sea level.
2. Soil Requirements
Cardmom cultivation can thrive well in soil with rich organic matter. Loamy soil rich in humus is well-suited for this crop production. The soil used for this crop’s cultivation must have a ph level between 4.5 to 7.0.
Small cardamom can be propagated either via seeds or vegetative propagation methods. During commercial cultivation, farmers use micro-propagation using the tissue culture technique. Farmers raise small cardamom seedlings in nursery beds for about 10-18 months.
4. Cardamom Planting Process
The ideal time for planting cardamom is between June to July, during monsoon season. Planting time can be easily done during cloudy days or when there are little drizzles. Once it are planted, pits are further filled with soil. Afterwards, the topsoil is covered with mulch.
However, in case of rainfed conditions, it is important to apply the fertilizers in two splits. The first dose will help develop suckers, while the second application will help suckers develop further into panicles.
5. Manures & Fertilisers
The recommended dose of NPK for cardamom farming is 75:75:150. Farmers can add lime to enhance soil acidity and nitrification. Compost or cattle manure can be added as compost per clump.
6. Irrigation for Cardamom seeds
Watering the seeds between 1-2 weeks of intervals is enough during the hot summer months. Daily watering in about 25mm to 38mm helps develop panicles and further a plant. However, there should be at least 40-50% water moisture in the soil to ensure proper growth of the suckers, panicles, and fruit set.
7. Harvesting of Cardamoms
Cardamoms become fruit-bearing generally after 2-3 years of plantation process. However, the fruits would mature after 35-45 days. The best season to harvest cardamom is between October to November.
8. Post-harvesting of cardamoms
Farmers often use sun drying or machine drying method in the post-harvesting period. The capsules are dried after harvesting, either using electricity or the sun. The dried cardamom capsules are sorted and graded based on size and colour. To keep the green colour during storage, store the cardamom capsules in chambers made of wood inside black polythene-lined gunny bags.
How much yield can you expect from cardamom cultivation?
You can expect to have 450-500 kg/ha of yield if you put in the right practices to cultivate cardamoms. However, this is just a rough estimate; the yield can vary depending on
Frequently Asked Questions
Questions. Is growing cardamom profitable?
Ans. Yes, growing cardamon is quite profitable for Indian farmers. The yield per hectare for cardamom is 450-500kg.
Questions. Which month is favourable for cardamom planting?
Ans. After the onset of the monsoon, planting is done between June-July. And if planting in low-lying areas, the ideal time to plant would be after the cessation of heavy rainfall showers.
Questions. Which is the favourable climate for cardamon planting?
Ans. The favourable climatic condition for cardamon is between 10-35o C. And the annual rainfall should range between 1500-4000mm.
Questions. How much is the lifespan of cardamon?
Ans. The average lifespan of cardamon seeds is between 10-15 years.
Questions. Name the kind of cardamom sold commercially.
Ans. The following are some commercially farmed varieties of small Cardamom in India.